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By the end of Stage 2 students communicate expressively and clearly with growing proficiency about ideas and information in classroom, school and social situations for a range of purposes. They explore a variety of roles when interacting in pairs and groups, attending to different views and responding appropriately. Students use various listening behaviours to gather general ideas and key points from conversations, reports or spoken presentations. They identify the effect of purpose, audience and culture on spoken texts and shape and present ideas accordingly. Students identify common organisational patterns and language features of predictable spoken texts.
Students independently read, view and respond to familiar and challenging texts and justify interpretations of ideas, information and events using a range of skills and strategies. They integrate a range of skills and strategies efficiently when reading, interpreting, analysing and evaluating texts and visual images. Students identify literal information in texts and make inferences, integrating and linking ideas and asking questions to clarify understandings. They recognise the representation of characters, settings and events in imaginative texts and start to evaluate point of view. They explain some ways in which authors and illustrators engage the interests of audiences and achieve a range of purposes. Students explore the structural and grammatical features and purposes for a range of written, visual and multimodal texts.
Students create well-structured imaginative, informative and persuasive texts in terms of topic, purpose, audience and language by drafting, proofreading and editing for familiar and unfamiliar audiences. They use simple and complex sentences, paragraphing, punctuation and grammatical features characteristic of the various texts to support meaning. Students spell familiar and unfamiliar words using knowledge of letter—sound correspondence, regular and irregular spelling patterns, spelling rules and a range of other strategies. They use increasing fluency when writing, applying NSW Foundation Style as appropriate, and develop digital publishing skills. Students explain and reflect on how they structure their writing to achieve intended purposes.

By the end of Stage 2, students ask questions and use efficient mental and written strategies with increasing fluency to solve problems. They use technology to investigate mathematical concepts and check their solutions. Students use appropriate terminology to describe and link mathematical ideas, check statements for accuracy and explain their reasoning.

Students count, order, read and record numbers of up to five digits. They use informal and formal mental and written strategies to solve addition and subtraction problems. Students use mental stlategies to recall multiplication facts up to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They use informal written strategies for multiplication and division of two-digit numbers by one-digit numbers. Students represent, model and compare commonly used fractions, and model, compare and represent decimals of up to two decimal places. Students perform simple calculations with money and solve simple purchasing problems. They record, describe and complete number patterns and determine missing numbers in number sentences. Students recognise the properties of odd and even numbers.

Students estimate, measure, compare, convert and record length, area, volume, capacity and mass using formal units. They read and record time in hours and minutes, convert between units of time, and solve – simple problems involving the duration of time. Students name, describe and sketch particular three-

Dimensional objects and two-dimensional shapes. They combine and split two-dimensional shapes to create other shapes. They compare angles using informal means and classify angles according to their size. Students use a grid-reference system to describe position, and compass points to give and follow directions. They make simple calculations using scales on maps and plans.

Students collect and organise data, and create and interpret tables and picture and column graphs. They list all possible outcomes of everyday events, and describe and compare chance events in social and experimental contexts.

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