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By the end of Stage 1 students communicate with a wide range of audiences on familiar and introduced topics to achieve a variety of purposes. They interact effectively, adopting new communication skills and select vocabulary to enhance meaning in order to give confident presentations. Students attend to instructions, share ideas and engage effectively in group and class discussions. They recognise that spoken language has a range of purposes and audiences and use this knowledge when attempting to communicate effectively with others. They investigate the different types and organisational patterns of common spoken texts and recognise features within them. Students create imaginative, informative and persuasive spoken texts drawing on their own experiences, their imagination, and ideas they have learned.

Students read and view imaginative, informative and persuasive texts. They use an increasing variety of skills and strategies, including knowledge of text structure, context, grammar, punctuation, word usage and phonics, to make connections between texts and between their own experiences and information in texts. Students read with developing fluency and intonation short texts with some unfamiliar vocabulary, simple sentences and images. Students read, interpret and discuss texts from a variety of cultures, including visual and multimodal texts, using a range of skills and strategies. They locate literal information in written texts and refer to features of language and images to make inferences about characters’ actions and motivations. Students explore and identify ways in which texts differ according to purpose, audience and subject.

Students create imaginative, informative and persuasive texts on familiar topics for known readers by planning, proofreading and editing their own writing. They write using basic grammatical features and conventions of punctuation, showing an awareness of different purposes, audiences and subject matter. Students use knowledge of letter—sound correspondence, sight words and regular spelling patterns to accurately spell known words and an increasing number of irregularly spelt words. They write consistently and clearly using NSW Foundation Style as appropriate and use digital technologies to produce texts, recognising simple conventions, language and functions. Students reflect on and assess their own and others’ learning.

By the end of Stage 1, students ask questions and use known facts, objects, diagrams and technology to explore mathematical problems and develop mathematical fluency. They link mathematical ideas and use appropriate language and diagrams to explain strategies used.
Students count, order, read and write two- and three-digit numbers and use a range of strategies and recording methods. They use mental strategies and concrete materials to add, subtract, multiply and divide, and solve problems. Students model and describe objects and collections divided into halves, quarters and eighths. They associate collections of Australian coins with their value. They use place value to partition numbers. Students describe and continue a variety of number patterns and build number relationships. They relate addition and subtraction facts for sums to at least 20.

Students estimate, measure, compare and record using informal units for length, area, volume, capacity and mass. They recognise the need for formal units of length and use the metre and centimetre to measure length and distance. They use a calendar to identify the date and name and order the months and the seasons of the year. Students use informal units to compare and order the duration of events and tell the time on the half-and quarter-hour. They identify, describe, sort and model particular three-dimensional objects and two-dimensional shapes. Students represent and describe the position of objects and interpret simple maps.

Students collect, organise, display and interpret data using lists, tables and picture graphs. They recognise and describe the element of chance in everyday events.

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