By the end of Stage 3, students ask questions and undertake investigations, selecting appropriate technological applications and problem-solving strategies to demonstrate fluency in mathematical techniques. They use mathematical terminology and some conventions, and they give valid reasons when comparing and selecting from possible solutions, making connections with existing knowledge and understanding.

Students select and apply appropriate mental, written or calculator strategies for the four operations and check the reasonableness of answers using estimation. They solve word problems and apply the order of operations to number sentences where required. Students identify factors and multiples and recognise the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers. They connect fractions, decimals and percentages as different representations of the same value. Students compare, order and perform calculations with simple fractions, decimals and percentages and apply the four operations to money in real-life situations. Students record, describe and continue geometric and number patterns, and they find missing numbers in number sentences. They locate an ordered pair in any one of the four quadrants on the Cartesian plane.

Students select and use the appropriate unit to estimate, measure and calculate length, area, volume, capacity and mass. They make connections between capacity and volume, and solve problems involving length and area. Students use 24-hour time in real-life situations, construct and interpret timelines and use timetables. They convert between units of length, units of capacity and units of mass. They construct and classify three-dimensional objects and two-dimensional shapes, and compare and describe their features, including line and rotational symmetries. Students measure and construct angles, and find unknown angles in diagrams using known angle results. They use a grid-reference system to locate landmarks and describe routes using landmarks and directional language.

Students use appropriate data collection methods to interpret and analyse sets of data and construct a range of data displays. They assign probabilities as fractions, decimals or percentages in simple chance experiments.