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By the end of Stage 3 students communicate effectively, using considered language to entertain, inform and persuade audiences for an increasing range of purposes. They work productively and independently in pairs or groups to deliver effective presentations using various skills and strategies. Students collaborate with others to share and evaluate ideas and opinions and to develop different points of view. They express well-developed and well-organised ideas about literary texts and respond constructively to different opinions. They demonstrate active listening behaviours in order to gather specific information and ideas, recognising and exploring how spoken and written language differ and how spoken language varies according to context. Students evaluate characteristic language features and organisational patterns of challenging spoken texts.

Students independently read and view an extensive range of complex texts and visual images using a comprehensive range of skills and strategies. They respond to themes and issues within texts, recognise point of view and justify interpretations by referring to their own knowledge, values and experiences. They identify, critically analyse and respond to techniques, literary devices and language features used by writers to influence readers. Students compare and accurately summarise information on a particular topic from different texts and make well-supported generalisations about the topic. Students identify text structure of a range of complex texts and explore how grammatical features work to influence an audience’s understanding of written, visual, media and multimodal texts.

Students create well-structured and well-presented written and multimodal imaginative, informative and persuasive texts for a wide range of purposes and audiences. They deal with complex topics, issues and language features. Students select information and ideas from personal, literary and researched resources, and adapt imaginative ideas and situations from literature. They make considered choices in written texts from an expanding vocabulary and from growing knowledge of grammatical patterns, complex sentence structures, cohesive links and literary devices. Students write well-structured sentences and paragraphs on particular aspects of the topic, clarifying and explaining how choices of language and literary features were designed to influence the meaning communicated in their texts. They spell most common words accurately and use a variety of strategies to spell less common words. They develop a fluent writing style and employ digital technology to present written texts effectively in a variety of ways for different purposes and audiences. Students evaluate the effectiveness of their writing by drafting, proofreading, editing, reviewing and publishing, focusing on grammatical features and the conventions of writing.

By the end of Stage 3, students ask questions and undertake investigations, selecting appropriate technological applications and problem-solving strategies to demonstrate fluency in mathematical techniques. They use mathematical terminology and some conventions, and they give valid reasons when comparing and selecting from possible solutions, making connections with existing knowledge and understanding.

Students select and apply appropriate mental, written or calculator strategies for the four operations and check the reasonableness of answers using estimation. They solve word problems and apply the order of operations to number sentences where required. Students identify factors and multiples and recognise the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers. They connect fractions, decimals and percentages as different representations of the same value. Students compare, order and perform calculations with simple fractions, decimals and percentages and apply the four operations to money in real-life situations. Students record, describe and continue geometric and number patterns, and they find missing numbers in number sentences. They locate an ordered pair in any one of the four quadrants on the Cartesian plane.

Students select and use the appropriate unit to estimate, measure and calculate length, area, volume, capacity and mass. They make connections between capacity and volume, and solve problems involving length and area. Students use 24-hour time in real-life situations, construct and interpret timelines and use timetables. They convert between units of length, units of capacity and units of mass. They construct and classify three-dimensional objects and two-dimensional shapes, and compare and describe their features, including line and rotational symmetries. Students measure and construct angles, and find unknown angles in diagrams using known angle results. They use a grid-reference system to locate landmarks and describe routes using landmarks and directional language.

Students use appropriate data collection methods to interpret and analyse sets of data and construct a range of data displays. They assign probabilities as fractions, decimals or percentages in simple chance experiments.

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